[박종진의 과학이야기] rotation of particles

Jongjin Park

Even through the Industrial Revolution, we did not know what the most basic unit of matter was. Then, when humans discovered the existence of electrons only at the end of the 19th century, they thought that electrons would be randomly located in the shape of an atom, like a date or a pine nut embedded in abbreviation. Then, a genius scientist accidentally discovered the nucleus of an atom and thought that the atom was electrically stable because it had the opposite charge to the electrons around it.

He imagined that an atom had a solid and large nucleus in the center just like the solar system, and electrons orbiting around it. Taking it a step further, his student speculated that electrons would orbit their own orbits like many planets around the sun.

Around that time, neutrons were discovered in the nucleus of an atom, and the great discovery that atoms consist of protons and neutrons that make up nucleons, and electrons orbiting around them, layer by layer, was made, and we, who were already accustomed to such a structure of the solar system, believed without any doubt.

But there is a problem. No matter how small an electron was, it had mass, but it did not obey Newton’s laws of motion. Moreover, it disappeared for no reason and suddenly appeared in another orbit (quantum leap), and even shared information faster than light (quantum entanglement).

Because classical physics is based on Newton’s laws of motion, a force must act to change the orbit, and Einstein nailed that nothing in the universe is faster than light, so the properties of electrons go against classical mechanics. Scientists have been trying to figure out why classical physics doesn’t work in the microscopic world. Finally, a new physics called quantum mechanics was born.

However, as research continued, Newton’s and Einstein’s theories were hurt, and scientists tried to force them. When it became difficult to explain the new phenomenon with existing physics, he tried to reach the same conclusion by using various shortcuts. By mobilizing all the classical laws of physics and rolling his eccentric head, he forced himself to fit into the new quantum mechanics.

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The standard model, which is the modern version of the periodic table of elements, can explain basic particles in nature and basic phenomena related to their force and mass. If we look closely at the standard model, which consists of all 17 elementary particles, each particle has its own charge, color, mass, and rotation values. However, the rotation (spin) that appears here is actually a forced Chunhyang. Only then will we be able to explain quantum mechanics with classical physics. As such, the standard model is still incomplete, and we are still waiting for the final particle, the gravitational force, to be discovered.

Modern physics is advanced enough to guess the age of the universe and the brightness of supernovae in extrasolar galaxies. Still, it is not enough to fully explain quantum mechanics. When it can’t be done, scientists are busy putting together the concept of spin (rotation) and fussing about that direction.

Now we are on the eve of a new physics that can explain the microscopic world and even black holes. Some genius scientists have been able to live up to physics, which has never been solved by the phenomenon of particle rotation, but in fact, particles do not spin on their own like a merry-go-round. So Wolfgang Pauli, the master of quantum mechanics, said:

“Nobody really understands quantum mechanics!” (Writer)

Jongjin Park


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