7 Things That Can Cause An Abnormal Menstrual Cycle

Menstruation illustration

JAKARTA, kilat.com- Menstrual conditions are different for every woman. Most women have menstrual periods that last four to seven days. Menstruation usually occurs every 28 days, but a normal menstrual cycle can range from 21 days to 35 days. Some women are concerned about their irregular menstrual cycles. Examples of menstrual problems that are often experienced include:

– Periods that occur less than 21 days or more than 35 days

– Missing three or more periods in a row

– Menstrual flow that is much heavier or lighter than usual

– Menstruation that lasts more than seven days

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– Menstruation accompanied by pain, cramps, nausea or vomiting

– Bleeding or spotting that occurs between periods, after menopause or after sex

There are many causes for abnormal periods, from stress to more serious underlying medical conditions. If you are experiencing problems with irregular menstrual cycles, let’s find out the cause here and immediately consult a doctor.

1. Stress and lifestyle

According to the Cleveland Clinic, significant weight gain or loss, diet, changes in exercise routine, travel, illness, or other disruptions in a woman’s daily routine can have an impact on her menstrual cycle.

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2. Take birth control pills

Most birth control pills contain a combination of the hormones estrogen and progestin (some contain progestin alone). These pills prevent pregnancy by keeping the ovaries from releasing eggs. Turning birth control pills on or off can affect your period. Some women experience irregular or missed periods for up to six months after stopping birth control pills. This is an important consideration when you are planning for conception and getting pregnant. Women who take birth control pills that contain only progestins may experience bleeding between periods.

3. Uterine polyps or fibroids

Uterine polyps are small benign (noncancerous) growths in the lining of the uterus. While uterine fibroids are tumors that attach to the uterine wall. There may be one or more fibroids that range from as small as an apple seed to the size of a grapefruit. These tumors are usually benign, but can cause heavy bleeding and pain during menstruation. If the fibroids are large, they may put pressure on the bladder or rectum, causing discomfort.

4. Endometriosis

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The endometrial tissue that lines the uterus breaks down every month and is shed with the menstrual flow. Endometriosis occurs when endometrial tissue begins to grow outside the uterus. Often, endometrial tissue attaches to the ovaries or fallopian tubes; sometimes it grows in your intestines or other organs in your lower digestive tract and in the area between your rectum and uterus. Endometriosis can cause abnormal bleeding, cramping or pain before and during menstruation, and painful sexual intercourse.

5. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)

Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is a bacterial infection that affects the female reproductive system. Bacteria can enter the vagina through sexual contact and then spread to the uterus and upper genital tract. The bacteria can also enter the reproductive tract through gynecological procedures or through childbirth, miscarriage, or abortion. Symptoms of PID include heavy vaginal discharge with an unpleasant odor, irregular periods, pain in the pelvic area and lower abdomen, fever, nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea.

6. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)

In PCOS, the ovaries make large amounts of androgens which are male hormones. Small fluid-filled sacs (cysts) may form on the ovaries. This can be seen through ultrasound. Hormonal changes can prevent eggs from maturing, so ovulation may not occur consistently. Sometimes a woman with polycystic ovary syndrome will have irregular periods or stop menstruating altogether. In addition, this condition is associated with obesity, infertility, and hirsutism (excessive hair growth and acne).

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7. Premature ovarian insufficiency

This condition occurs in women under the age of 40 whose ovaries do not function normally. Menstrual cycles stop, similar to menopause. This can occur in patients being treated for cancer with chemotherapy and radiation, or if you have a family history of premature ovarian insufficiency or certain chromosomal abnormalities.


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