Italy supports the Government of National Accord led by Prime Minister Fayez al Sarraj who has the support of the international community. Rome is worried about extremism in Libya, but focuses mainly on economic problems and immigrants.
Paris supports the general Khalifa Haftar in Tobruk because he controls the areas of Libya where the interests of France lie, essentially the oil wells in the Gulf of Sirte.
Economically, Italy has deep commercial ties with Tripoli and its main port city, Misrata. It also has energy interests through the Eni company throughout the country, including the pipeline GreenStream, which are directly threatened by Haftar's allies, who have tried to weaken National Oil Corporation, the state oil company based in Tripoli, and founded its own oil company.
After bringing together representatives of various forces in Libya at a conference in May 2018 in Paris, the president Emmanuel Macron failed to reach an agreement on the conduct of the elections last December.
Russia is a key player. Moscow has increased its diplomatic participation in Libya in the last three years. He strengthened his alliance with the contradictory general Haftar, educated in the United States and subsequently trained by the Soviets.
Russia seems to be following a very practical approach: treating all the conflicting forces in the same way.
Russia seems to follow a strategy that recognizes the de facto partition of the country, promising political and military support for the battle of Haftar in the East, signing oil contracts and discussing commercial opportunities in the trade in commodities and futures. construction projects with institutions in Tripoli.
For Egypt, that the Cyrenaica region is under Haftar's control guarantees a security zone on the border with Islamist fundamentalism.