eruption of solar flares from the sun; the cause of the solar tsunami; The explosion headed for the ground

This light was observed jumping from the sun yesterday. The energy associated with these solar flares may be making their way to Earth right now. Photo: SWPC

According to the National Weather Service’s Center for Outer Space Weather Prediction (SWPC), the C3 flare erupted from sunspot region 2859 on the sun on August 26 and appears to have sent a solar blast to Earth. SPWC confirmed, by analyzing available images from the SOHO/LASCO instrument, the occurrence of a CME partial halo. In a statement released by the SWPC, analysis and modeling are now underway to determine if any of the CME components are potentially geographically influential.

This solar flare appears to have caused a “solar tsunami”. A solar tsunami, also known as a Moreton wave or a Moreton-Ramsey wave, is a sign of a large-scale solar coronal shock wave caused by a solar flare. Originally observed in the late 1950s, technology published by NASA in 2009 confirmed the existence of such a tsunami and its mechanism.

Unlike water waves in the traditional tsunami sense, solar tsunamis are heat waves, magnetic plasma about 62,000 miles across the solar system at a speed of about 560,000 miles per hour.

“Now we know,” said Joe Gorman of the Heliophysics Laboratory at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center. “Solar tsunamis are real.” NASA’s Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) confirmed a solar tsunami in 2009. The twin STEREO spacecraft captured the unexpected eruption of the 11012 sunspot in February of that year. The explosion threw a cloud of gas weighing a billion tons into space and sent a tsunami rapidly along the surface of the Sun. STEREO recorded waves from two locations separated by 90 degrees, giving researchers an unprecedented view of the event.

“It must be a wave,” said Spiros Patsorkos of George Mason University, lead author of the paper reporting the discovery in the Astrophysical Journal Letters. “Not a water wave, but a giant wave of hot and magnetic plasma.”

The technical name is “Fast Magnetic Dynamic Wave” or simply “MHD Wave”. The STEREO Single Saw climbs nearly 60,000 miles, shoots outwards at 560,000 miles per hour, and packs in as much as 2.4 million megatons of TNT.

And now it appears that the CME from region 2859 unleashed a similar solar tsunami today.

Scientists are now working to determine the type of geomagnetic storm, if any, that will arise from this solar tsunami. While the CME previously affected Earth as early as August 27, producing bright auroras in northern latitudes, more significant events could unfold with this solar tsunami.

Geomagnetic storms are rated on a scale of 1 to 5, with 1 being the weakest and 5 having the greatest damage potential. Even G1 geomagnetic storms can cause problems: there may be weak fluctuations in the power grid and little effect on satellite operations. The aurora borealis, also known as the “aurora borealis,” can be seen at high latitudes from northern Michigan and Maine to the northern point. Effects and aurorae change as the geomagnetic storm gauge increases.

Graph showing NOAA space weather metrics for geomagnetic storms. Photo: NOAA

Dark areas on the Sun known as coronal holes are one of the main drivers of today’s space weather. based on Space Weather Forecast Center, coronal holes appear as dark areas on the Sun because they are cooler than the surrounding plasma and are exposed magnetic field lines. The Sun’s outermost part of the atmosphere, known as the corona, is where this dark area appears. The solar corona is also one of the most interesting key features for solar scientists to study during past solar eclipses. You can observe these features in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) images and X-ray solar images.

The solar wind always flows from the Sun towards the Earth, but coronal holes are known to release enhanced solar wind. Coronal holes can develop anywhere on the Sun and are most common during the Solar Minimum. One solar rotation of the Sun occurs every 27 days, and sometimes a coronal hole can continue several of these rotations. It is common to see fixed coronal holes at the sun’s north and south poles, but sometimes they can extend towards the equator resulting in a larger area. Coronal holes near the sun’s equator usually cause the solar wind to reach Earth more quickly. It is common to see coronal vents producing geomagnetic storm levels G1-G2 and sometimes, in rare cases, G3 levels have been reached.

The dark area in this SDO image is what the coronal hole looks like.  Photo: NASA/SDO
This is an example of the data that forecasters will look at to determine when the corona hole effect will appear. Photo: NASA/Aurorarasaurus

NOAA forecaster Analyze these features and you should consider them during each prediction. If Earth experiences a coronal hole effect and the coronal mass ejection is expected to affect Earth, the combined effects could lead to a larger impact and more intense geomagnetic storms. Analyzing data from the DSCOVER and ACE satellites is one way forecasters can tell when the solar wind driven from the coronal hole will reach Earth. Some of the things they look for in the data to determine when the better solar wind will reach Earth:
• Increase the speed of the solar wind
• High temperature
• Low particle density
• The strength of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) is getting stronger

If you’re an aurora hunter or a fan of space weather, you’ll want to learn about coronal holes. They will save a lot of our geomagnetic activity going forward and will remain constant for as long as the solar minimum. Citizen scientists must explore aurora borealis which allows you to share or get alerts and photos of aurora activity with a community of other people interested in space weather.

While these solar events can help illuminate the sky with stunning auroras, they can also cause significant damage to electronics, power grids, and satellite and radio communications.

On September 1-2, 1859, a strong geomagnetic storm hit Earth during the 10th solar cycle. The CME hit Earth and caused the largest geomagnetic storm ever recorded. The storm was so powerful that it created extremely bright aurorae across the planet: people in California believe the sun rises early, people in the northeastern United States can read newspapers at night from the bright light of dusk, and people as far south as Hawaii you can see the aurora borealis of South Central Mexico in the sky.

This event caused serious damage to the existing limited power and communication network; Telegraph systems have failed worldwide, with several telegraph operators reporting electric shocks.

A work of art from the Parker Solar Probe in space.  Photo: NASA
An artistic display of the Parker Solar Probe in space, an asset scientists use to better understand solar activity and its effect on Earth. Photo: NASA

A June 2013 study by Lloyd’s of London and Atmospheric and Environmental Research (AER) in the US showed that if the Carrington event occurred in modern times, the damage in the US could exceed $2.6 trillion, approximately 15% of GDP. The country’s annual total.

While the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the National Weather Service (NWS) are usually best known for their weather forecasts, they are also responsible for “space weather.” While there are private companies and other institutions that monitor and forecast space weather, the official source for space environmental warnings and warnings is the Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC). Located in Boulder, Colorado, SWPC is a service center for NWS, part of NOAA. The Center for Space Weather Prediction is also one of the nine National Environmental Forecasting Centers (NCEP) as it monitors current space weather activity 24/7, 365 days a year.

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