1. Neisseria meningitidis
N. meningitidis can causes invasive meningitis, a potentially deadly infection of the brain and spinal cord's protective membranes.
It is gaining a reputation as a cause of urogenital infections. Self-fellatio. "This animal frequently engages in self oral-genital contact," the authors duly (one remarkable study from the 1970s) noted.)
Roughly 5 to 10 percent of adults likewise carry No meningitidis in the back of the nose and throat. You can transmit the bacteria to oral sex, deep kissing or other kinds of close contact that transmit infected droplets.
Researchers are not yet sure which of these diseases have become outbreaks of invasive forms of the disease among gays and bisexual men in Europe, Canada and the US. However, one study of urethritis caused by N. meningitidis in a group of men (all but one of those who were heterosexual) suggested that they contracted it from receiving oral sex.
Scientists determined that strain that hit multiple US cities in 2015 acquired DNA through genetic recombination with its relative close, N. gonorrhoeae, which causes gonorrhea. This mutation allowed the STI to spread more efficiently.
Five types of N. meningitidis are responsible for most infections around the world; Fortunately, there are two vaccines that can offer some protection against all five.
2. Mycoplasma genitalium
M. genitalium, one of the smallest bacteria known, is gaining an outsized reputation as a worrisome STI. Is an estimated 1 to 2 percent of people and is especially common in adolescents and young adults.
M. genitalium infection, though often symptom-free, can mimic chlamydia or gonorrhea with persistent irritation of the urethra and cervix. Because it may trigger pelvic inflammatory disease, it has been associated with infertility, miscarriage, premature birth and even stillbirth.
M. condomtum can be prevented from occurring, and may have prevented infection. "It will be more and more prevalent," says Matthew Golden, director of the Seattle Public Health and King County HIV / STD Program.
More testing could help prevent the emergence of an M. genitalium superbug. However, diagnostic methods already available, based on urine testing and cervical or vaginal swabs, are still rarely used.
3. Shigella flexneri
Shigellosis (or Shigella dysentery) is passed on by direct or indirect contact with human faeces. The infection causes severe cramps and explosive bouts of blood- and mucus-filled diarrhea, which helps perpetuate transmission of the bacteria.
Began the documentary cases of shigellosis in gay and bisexual men in the 1970s. S. flexneri, scientists believe, essentially exploited a new niche for transmission through anal-oral sex and has led to multiple STI outbreaks around the world since then.
Demetre Daskalakis, deputy commissioner at the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, says the STI is fast becoming resistant to azithromycin, which is also used to treat gonorrhea.
Because public health agencies are worried about Shigella's potential to drive the emergence of a gonorrhea superbug, he says. Antibiotics and letting shigellosis for adults who are otherwise healthy.
4. Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV)
This STI, caused by the unusual strains of Chlamydia trachomatis, can cause an "awful infection", according to Christopher Schiessl, a doctor at the One Medical clinic in San Francisco's Castro neighborhood.
LGV may first produce a temporary genital pimple, blister or ulcer, and then invade the body's lymphatic system. Rectal infection can mimic inflammatory bowel disease and lead to chronic and severe colon and rectal abnormalities such as fistulas and strictures.
Over the past decade, LGV has become more common in Europe and North America, and has been associated with multiple disease outbreaks, especially among gay and bisexual men. As with chlamydia, LGV can increase the risk of contracting HIV. LGV may require a three-week course of antibiotics such as doxycycline.
This article was first published by Wellcome on Mosaic. It is republished under a Creative Commons license.