How the new planet of the solar system looks and when it will be opened

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MOSCOW, March 17 – RIA Novosti, Tatyana Pichugina. The ninth planet from the Sun will be discovered in the next decade, according to American astronomers. It moves in an elliptical orbit in the Kuiper belt, an area poorly studied far beyond Neptune. New data leave little doubt that there is a super-earth in the solar system.

Who pulls the eye sockets

A person who studies the solar system is not the first millennium, but there are still enough white spots. For example, in the 80s, astronomers enthusiastically looked for Nemesis – a dark star, partner of the Sun. It was assumed that it could cause an ecological catastrophe on Earth 65 million years ago when dinosaurs died.

Pluto was considered the ninth planet of the Solar System, but in 2006 it was deprived of this status, redeveloping itself into a dwarf planet, actually an asteroid. The initiator was an American astronomer Michael Brown of the California Institute of Technology (USA). He described all this in the book "How I killed Pluto and why it was inevitable."

The search for the killer star ended in nothing, but a decade or so later demonstrated the existence of the Kuiper belt – an area in which fragments of matter ice were concentrated, which remained after the formation of the solar system . The largest are about nine hundred kilometers. In total, about two thousand celestial bodies were found.

Brown intentionally explores the Kuiper belt, looking for other transnettonic objects, ie those that are farther from the Sun of Neptune. He discovered 27 celestial bodies, including the dwarf planets Sedna and Eridu.

Among the transneptonic objects there are anomalous, whose orbits are very elongated: their semi-axes extend to 250 astronomical units (distances from the Sun to the Earth), while the points of the orbit closest to a star are in the same region. To explain this strangeness, Brown and his colleague Kaltekh Konstantin Batygin put forward the hypothesis of the existence of another planet on the periphery of the solar system in 2016.

Out of competition

In search of a new planet, considerable forces were launched, amateur astronomers were hooked – to no avail. However, the hypothesis has not been abandoned, on the contrary, now it seems even more reasonable. "We feared that there would be a simpler or more natural explanation for the anomalies we see in the data and that the hypothesis of the ninth planet would soon become irrelevant, but this did not happen.
There are only two alternative versions that explain the orbital anomalies of the most distant objects of the Kuiper belt. The first is the error of observation. A new article by Brown and Batygin, published in The Astronomical Journal in January, is dedicated to his analysis. Scientists have calculated the probability that the orbits of these bodies appear exactly as they see them now, thanks to an error. The result is only two tenths of a percentage point. Conclusion: the oddities observed are statistically significant.
Another alternative is the existence of another huge disk in the Solar System, consisting of planetesimal glaciers – remains of a protoplanetary disk, whose gravity attracts the orbits of transnettonian objects in the same way as an entire planet. But, notes Michael Brown, this scenario is even more complicated.

Super earth in the solar system?

The results of two years of research on the ninth planet are summarized in an article by Brown and Batygin, prepared in collaboration with colleagues from the University of Michigan for the journal Physics Reports. The scientists analyzed all the facts again, clarified the characteristics of a hypothetical planet, performed numerical simulations and presented convincing evidence of its existence.
The ninth planet is twice as small in all parameters as it seemed three years ago, explains Batygin. The major axis of its orbit is about 400-500 astronomical units, the eccentricity is 0.15-0.3 (an indicator of the compactness of an ellipse), the inclination is of 20 degrees. The best simulation results are obtained when the mass of the planet is five times that of the Earth. In any case, the ten masses of the earth are the ceiling. For comparison: Neptune is 17.2 times heavier.

Judging by the characteristics, the ninth planet is very similar to the super-earth – a special class of exoplanets, often observed in other stars. Perhaps this celestial body did not actually form here, but was captured by the Sun when it approached another star system. However, the question of the origin of a hypothetical planet soon rises.

Thus the artist has depicted a new planet open to scientists

January 21, 2016, 19:33

Scientist: c & # 39; is the possibility of seeing "Planet X"In the United States announced the discovery of a new planet in the solar system. It is impossible to see it from the Earth – there are no such telescopes. But a station was launched into space that will help to see the "planet X", the astronomer Vladislav Shevchenko, an astronomer told Sputnik Radio.

Wanderer refuge

The magnitude, or brightness, of a new member of the planetary family is very small – 24-25 magnitudes. This is at the limit of the possibilities of terrestrial technology. An object could detect a Pan-STARRS telescope that analyzes the entire sky. However, there is complexity – the most distant point in the orbit of the celestial body that interests us, perhaps, it crosses the plane of the Milky Way, where c & # 39; is a high concentration of stars. It is difficult to distinguish something from their background.

Brown and Batygin are looking for their planet on the Subaru telescope in Hawaii, which has a very high resolution camera. Last year, with his help, they opened another object in the distant Kuiper – Goblin belt.

Of the optical instruments for the search of the ninth planet, a four-meter telescope named after Victor Blanco in Chile is also suitable with a powerful camera designed to study dark energy. In the same place, in Chile, in 2022 the great eight-meter LSST observation telescope will work.

Furthermore, promising searches in the wavelengths of the infrared and the microwave. Although the planet is small, it warms up from the Sun, is somewhat warmer than its surrounding space, which means that it can be found in the WISE orbital telescope data.

While astronomers don't even know where to send the tools to search for the ninth planet: it can be anywhere. Perhaps his image has already been received, but not yet identified.

"The ninth planet, if it exists as we describe it, is likely to be discovered in the next decade", believe the authors of the hypothesis.

The Californian scientist shows the orbit of the proposed ninth planet in the solar system

August 3, 2016, 3.35pm

Batygin: "The planet X" could be stolen from the Solar SystemThe astronomer Konstantin Batygin, one of the discoverers of the mysterious super-heavy "Planet X", suggests that the ninth planet of the Solar System could be "stolen" from the Sun by its neighbors in the stellar nurseries where it was born.

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