"We have been searching for a similar object for a long time, studying the farthest periphery of space. Our calculations show that there are probably no brightest quasars in the first and even in the modern Universe," said Xiaohui # 39; University of Arizona in Tucson (USA).
It is believed that supermassive black holes, whose mass can be several million or billions of times higher than solar, inhabit the center of the most massive galaxies. Initially, scientists believed that such objects were presented in the same way as their normal "cousins" – as a result of the gravitational collapse of the stars and the subsequent fusion of several large black holes.
Observations on the first galaxies of the Universe have questioned astrophysicists – it was discovered that they live black holes with a mass of tens of billions of suns. Such objects, as the calculations show, simply would not have had time to grow in such dimensions if they were born small.
Therefore, some scientists have begun to believe that supermassive black holes were born in more exotic scenarios – as a result of the collapse of giant "pure" atomic hydrogen clouds or dark matter clusters, as well as exotic "dark" stars, the whose mass can be hundreds of times higher, compared to ordinary stars.
9 January 2017, 17:39
Hubble has received photos of a black hole that violates the laws of physics
In recent years, Hubble and other powerful telescopes around the world have been searching for the oldest black holes and their potential "germs", using so-called gravitational lenses, whose existence is predicted by Einstein's theory of relativity.
It is believed that any accumulation of matter of a large mass, including dark matter, interacts with light and causes its rays to bend, as do normal optical lenses. Scientists call this gravitational lens effect. In some cases, the curvature of space helps astronomers to see super-distant objects at the dawn of the youth of the Universe.
Recently, Fang and his team smiled of luck: they managed to find a gravitational lens, generated by a very weak galaxy, located eight billion light years from Earth. Its attraction increased and distorted the light of an even more distant and ancient galaxy in the constellation of Taurus, which was 12.8 billion light years away from us, about 50 times, making this object visible to Hubble.
This "megalopolis star", called J0439 + 1634, is unique and extremely interesting for several reasons. First, we see it in the state in which it existed at the end of the so-called epoch of reionization, the original "dark ages" of the Universe, when space was not yet transparent to light and other electromagnetic waves.
Secondly, in its center there is a brilliant and large black disk, which produces about 600 trillion times more light and other forms of radiation than the sun. Its mass, according to the most conservative estimates of astronomers, should be at least 430 million times higher than that of our star, but in reality it can be much larger.
3 December 2018, 15:38
"Bagels" of black holes appeared "fountains", the scientists say
Furthermore, the "Einstein lens" proved to be so successful that scientists were able to study not only the quasar itself, but also the nearby gas clouds. Their photos showed that J0439 + 1634 is experiencing a "baby boom" record. Every year tens of thousands of new stars are formed, which are three orders of magnitude more than the Milky Way and other modern galaxies.
This, according to Fan and his colleagues, can explain how a black hole in the center of this ancient galaxy has reached such large dimensions in a short time. Such a high rate of formation of new stars is only possible if a large quantity of "fresh" and cold gas constantly hits the center of the galaxy.
They plan to test this theory after launching the James Webb telescope, the successor to Hubble, which can see how the gas flows near the center J0439 + 1634. These observations will show how much of it is achieved inside the black hole and how its attraction influences the rate of star formation.