Insights into the symbiotic lifestyle of DPANN archaea revealed by agriculture and genome analysis

indication

Superphylum DPANN is a group of symbiotic microorganisms classified based on their genetic content and some examples of cultivation experiments. Although DPANN archaeal genomic information is increasing year by year, it remains largely unprocessed, which limits our knowledge of this organism. Here, the acid-thermal symbiotic archaeon (ARM-1) was successfully grown and characterized from the superphylum DPANN. We have determined its physiological, morphological and genomic characteristics in detail and obtained experimental evidence of a symbiotic lifestyle for this effect. Notably, ARM-1 is a symbiotic primitive strain that has shown dependence on various host species in laboratory culture. The results contribute significantly to a correct understanding of the physiology and ecology of DPANN archaea.

summary

Decades of culture-independent analysis have yielded proposals for several temporal primitive phyla without cultivable representatives. Members of DPANN (an abbreviation for the name of the first phylum consisting of the phyla Diapherotrites, Parvarchaeota, Aenigmarchaeota, Nanohaloarchaeota, and Nanoarchaeota), an archaeal group consisting of at least 10 temporary phyla, are generally considered to be obligate symbionts that depend on other microorganisms. While many whole genome drafts/sequences of DPANN thrush are available and their biological functions have been largely predictable, only a few examples of successful in vitro cultivation have been reported, limiting our knowledge of their symbiotic lifestyle. Here, we investigate the physiology, morphology, and host specificity of the phylum implications.”Candidate Microarchaeota” (ARM-1) belongs to the DPANN super epoch with cultivation. We built a stable plant culture system consisting of ARM-1 and its host metallosphyra S. US-7 belongs to the order Solvoloples. Additional host displacement experiments confirmed that ARM-1 grew in five distinct archaeal species from three genera—metallosphyraAnd asdianos, And sacralopsIt comes from a geologically distinct hot and acidic environment. The results showed that there were DPANN archaea that could grow depending on the host group. Genomic analysis demonstrated inferred metabolic ability, common/unique genetic content of ARM-1 among cultured microbial representatives, and potential for horizontal gene transfer between ARM-1 and system members. Solvoloples. Our report highlights the symbiotic lifestyle of the DPANN archaea and will contribute to elucidating their biological/environmental function.

data availability

The 16S rRNA gene sequence data that supports the results of this study have been stored in GenBank with an accession number. LC490573LC490578. Urutan through ARM-1 dan metallosphyra S. AS-7 with raw readout data has been filed under the following accession number: AP024486 (through ARM-1), AP024487 (through AS-7), PRB248897 (PacBio RS II sounds long), and PRB248898 (Short reading from Illumina MiSeq). All research data are included in the articles and/or supporting information.

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