The new version 8.5 of my Linux Knoppix Knoppers (Knoppers Unix system), I present the weekend in the 21 days of Chemnitz Linux. Knoppix is based on the free Debian-GNU / Linux software and is designed to work immediately without installing the HDD from DVD, USB flash disk or over the network. On Saturday I deal with artificial intelligence in distribution, mainly on Sunday morning with security and privacy at home – including my new Knoppix in version 8.5.
It is based on the next generation version of the Debian branch test (codename Buster). The Vorabzweige I use mainly due to the new graphics libraries needed for current hardware and for current desktop programs. To get the widest possible hardware support, use Linux Kernel 4.20.6 and Xorg 7.7. The 3-D Compositor Compiz 0.9.13.1 (Figure 1) serves as a visual treat and a convenient extension to the very fast LXDE desktop interface.
Start options as a still image
Usually Knoppix does not need any boot options to recognize the hardware found including the graphics card and configure the system optimally. It contains a sort of artificial intelligence to decide, depending on the situation, which settings should fit a computer, on which there will be a conference at the Chemnitzer Linux-Tage.
Figure 1: Compiz switches between virtual desktops at the 3-D event. (Image: Klaus Knopper)
However, the increasing number of different chipsets, which are not all clean in case of failure, but sometimes cause the blocking of a software module, sometimes make it necessary to deactivate one or the other feature or component – diagnostically and temporarily – for starting on the normal desktop or to examine the system more closely. To do this, the user typed behind the boot prompt (Figure 2) "knoppix64" (for current 64-bit CPUs) or "knoppix" (for old 32-bit computers) for the Linux kernel , followed by the desired options.
Frequently used boot options immediately call for help at the start, available with [F2] or [F3]others are in the text file KNOPPIX / KNOPPIX-cheatcodes.txt listed. For example, if the desktop crashes at the start of the Compiz Window Manager 3-D, the boot options "knoppix nocomposite" or "knoppix no3d" often help.
USB hybrid image
Today most users install Knoppix after the first boot on a USB stick (8 GB or higher, USB 3.0 recommended) instead of always starting from DVD. Version 8.5 comes in the form of a hybrid image. Therefore they are allowed to copy the image of the DVD with the Linux "dd" or Etcher for Windows 1: 1 tool on a USB stick. The stick is automatically bootable. The effort makes sense especially for the meantime many notebooks that do not have a DVD drive.
On the other hand, if you have a DVD drive in your computer, you can easily flash the DVD image to a USB stick with the "flash-knoppix" program (menu Knoppix | Knoppix on Flash ). In addition to the speed advantage relative to the flash, users also have the option of persistently saving their settings and the installed software in addition. Flash-knoppix formats the first partition on FAT 32, making it writable and editable, including boot options in boot / syslinux / sysl * .cfg,
Warning: due to the hybrid layout features, computers that have booted UEFI will show the DVD as UEFI drive, but generally it is not bootable in this mode. On the other hand, the variant copied on a USB stick, either generated by "dd" or "flash-knoppix", is compatible with UEFI and Secure.
A hidden partition of the hybrid image or FAT-32 partition of the USB flash drive "flash-knoppix" hosts the necessary files for booting UEFI. The fully writable "flash-knoppix" system on the target USB drive also offers the possibility to automatically encrypt personal data automatically created during the use of Knoppix. In this way, the access data and passwords on the USB stick remain well protected from the eyes of strangers.
List of long equipment
Most of the software installation on Knoppix is compressed with its kernel module as a file system overlay on the DVD, in order to make the distribution very complete and representative for a Linux application system. Nearly 4,000 Debian software packages fit on the disc, such as the four LXDE desktops, the slim standard Knoppix desktop, Gnome 3 (boot option "knoppix64 desktop = gnome"), KDE 5 ("knoppix64 desktop = kde") and Adriane without barriers. desktop.
Also includes: Wine 4.0 as pre-release for installation and direct execution of Windows programs, Qemu-kvm 3.1 for Paravirtualization, Owncloud and Nextcloud client, Tor Browser, Chromium and Firefox ESR, Libre Office, Gimp , Blender, Freecad, Meshlab, Open Scad or for Kdenlive videos, Openshot, Photo Filmstrip, Obs-studio and many others.
The author: inventor of Knoppix Klaus Knopper, Dipl.-Ing. in electrical engineering, he works as a freelance IT consultant and developer, is a professor at the University of Kaiserslautern and holds courses on free software. Inspired by the experiences of his blind wife, Knopper has developed the integrated Adriane solution from Kniffen, which simplifies the management of Linux PCs for the blind.