KOMPAS.com – Minerals are formed in all geological environments and are influenced by various physical and chemical conditions, such as temperature and pressure.
As pure inorganic crystalline solids, minerals have a uniform structure at the molecular level. Meanwhile, man-made substances with pure structure are not minerals.
Only solids that occur naturally are referred to as minerals. Currently, there are more than 3,000 known minerals and the list is still growing.
Reported from SciencingMinerals form under a variety of conditions, such as the cooling of lava, evaporation of mineral-rich water, and at high temperatures and pressures.
Minerals can form from the extremely high heat and pressure found deep beneath the Earth’s crust, where molten rock flows as molten magma.
Silicates in magma can form minerals. This process can take up to millions of years. The 95 percent of the Earth’s crust is formed from 9 minerals, all of which are silicates, which are formed through this process.
The following is mineral formation process based on the physical and environmental conditions of the source, as reported by American Museum and Natural History (AMNH):
The process of mineral formation in a hydrothermal environment requires hot water, which dissolves the minerals and transports their components towards the running water.
As water moves, it cools and dissolved material can be deposited in space in the surrounding rock to form mineral pockets.
Minerals in native rocks form under one specific condition, but then undergo different conditions of heat, pressure, and water abundance in the Earth’s crust.
Minerals respond to these changes by transforming into minerals that are stable under the new conditions.
Igneous rock and minerals solidify from molten rock, called magma, beneath the Earth’s crust and lava as it flows to the ground’s surface.
These rocks and their mineral components are the result of processes that formed the Earth and other rocky planets.
Pegmatite is a special type of igneous rock characterized by large, interlocking crystals. Sometimes, unusual minerals contain rare elements.
Special conditions, such as water enrichment, allow the pegmatite to solidify rapidly, even within a few days.
When rocks and minerals are exposed on the surface, weathering processes change them through exposure to air, water, and ice.
Weathering is often followed by erosion or the transport of weathered material by the flow of water, wind, ice, and gravity.
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