Moon jumping to the edge of the solar system ONLINE TIME

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Fifty years after the first human being landed on the moon of the earth, he is back in business: China, Europe and, yes, even the Americans are again developing missions. Recently, an Israeli company sent the first private robot in the night to Friday. But why? Many other moons do much more. It all starts with the name: Phobos, Enceladus, Neireid are three, while our natural satellite has not brought it beyond the "moon".

Hundreds of moons are alone in ours solar system known. They come in many shapes and sizes, some have an atmosphere, others even hidden oceans. They revolve around asteroids or planets. But since neither Mercury nor Venus has moons – the assumptions about this have been refuted for years – it only becomes interesting from the height of Mars on Earth. Let's go from there to the moon hopping on the edge of the solar system:

Phobos (Mars)


0.0057 m / s

it is the attraction on the surface. On the Earth it is 9,80665.

Already on 17 August 1877 he discovered a Phobos astronomer, but until today it is as disconcerting as Marsmond once was. Researchers currently tend to get out of debris after a massive planetary disaster (Planetary and Space Science: Guiranna, 2011 and Review of astronomy and astrophysics: Rosenblatt, 2011) – but it could have been very different. Furthermore, the formation of strange trenches and the brilliant Stickney crater is not clear; nine kilometers in diameter, the largest impact crater on the moon. Only recently, a team has announced that a huge impact has led to the crater and debris too far. These had been crossed by the lunar surface due to the slight attraction of Phobos and its rotation and the major attraction of Mars, and had carved the extraordinary furrows on his face (Planetary and Space Science: Ramsley & Head, 2018). This too is an assumption so far. There is more speculation on the innermost core of Phobos: because of its low density of 1.88 grams per cubic centimeter, it still speaks of a porous and spongy structure to date, but this is not definitively proven: you are different compositions are conceivable in total.Icarus: Maistre et al., 2019). The astronomical world had once hoped for salvation from the Russian Fobos-Grunt mission. Unfortunately, there were problems with the calculation. Instead of feasting on the surface of Phobos and bringing samples to Earth, the probe was captured for the first time in a terrestrial orbit and then burned in the earth's atmosphere.

Europe (Jupiter)


9,806.8 kilometer

the circumference is at the equator. Land: 40.030.2 kilometers.

A total of 79 moons of various sizes on very different orbits surround the Jupiter to current knowledge. This makes the whole system a curiosity, but under the moons there are even more special nerds. Europe for example. Since Europe is not a ball of dusty crater, but an icy sparkling wine, it is considered one of the few promising places in the solar system to find more life. Like our planet, Europe should have an iron core, a stone mantle and an ocean of salt water. Unlike the Earth, however, this ocean lies beneath a 20-kilometer thick ice layer and is between 60 and 150 kilometers deep (Science: Iess et al., 2014). Particularly nice to see: the huge European water fountains, which shoot again and again up to a height of 200 kilometers. To learn more, the ESA survey on Juice should approach the moon at the end of the next decade soon. Following the regulations of the Cospar report, without risk of contamination by ground germs.

I (Jupiter)


3,528 g / cm³

it is density. The earth is about one and a half times thicker.

Go to the moon. moon. The ride of the moon of Peter – Our moon has already had many central aspects in pop culture. in 2001: A Space Odyssey However, another was allowed: Jupiters Io. To reach an abandoned spaceship, the astronauts were suspended in the film on a spacewalk on the moon – which was extremely dangerous, because even I is actually considered the most vulcanically active celestial body in the solar system (about science: Spencer et al., 2007 /Geophysical research letters: Rathbun, et al., 2002).

It is estimated that up to 400 volcanoes provide high kilometer lava fountains on Io, an ocean of silica lava laps its surface and the atmosphere is largely composed of sulfur dioxide; Incidentally, a preservative on earth. The space probes Voyager and Cassini have already flown, and Galileo, New Horizons, Juno and the Hubble telescope launched a glance in the meantime. In 2022, the Esa probe Juice is heading towards Jupiter, not focusing on Io, but he is allowed to glimpse in passing. This is desirable, because there is the belief that life, as we know it, is impossible on Io. But what about life, how we are not know?

Enceladus (Saturn)


32.9 schedule

it requires one day, which is 8.9 hours longer than the Earth.

Enceladus is not only the celestial body with the greatest luminosity of the solar system; it reflects about 99 percent of the incident sunlight. The little moon also makes the hearts of astrobiologists who seek life in space beat faster. Frosty fountains emerge from him, providing evidence of an underground ocean with hydrothermal activity. In Enceladus, hot water should reach levels of at least 90 degrees Celsius and the analysis of the fountains indicates that there are the building blocks for life; Silica particles, for example, caused fanatical storms among astrobiologists (nature: Postberg et al., 2009 e science: Iess et al., 2014). As the search for living organisms continues, the volcanic ice ball becomes a pleasant pastime: by spraying ice particles into space, the moon moves on its way to the outer ring of Saturn, the thin e-ring (Icarus: Kempf, Beckmann & Schmidt, 2010).

Titan (Saturn)


14000000000 kilometer

For example, the distance from the sun is 10 times farther than the Earth's orbit.

Yes, yes, it's true: the biggest moon of Saturn that Titan has visited. The Huygens lander – part of the Cassini mission – arrived there on January 14, 2005. It was the first probe on a celestial body in the outer solar system. Huygens sent data for 72 minutes, which is the maximum time at 180 degrees below zero on the surface (nature: Lebreton et al., 2005). From the descent to its end, there were a total of 474 megabits of information, including 350 images. Titano's lakes and seas are mostly liquid and methane ethane
(nature: Stofan et al., 2007).
Furthermore, complex chemical compounds are formed there in the
Atmosphere that rains on the surface. There is time, climate
and geology as on earth (Geophysical research letters: Turtle et al., 2009). But that does not mean that all the questions were answered. Something very important has yet to be answered: is it life on Titan – or at least the remains of it? Clarity could lead to two planned NASA missions. There is Oceanus – for the moment rejected. On the other hand, the Dragonfly drone probe, about which the US space agency will probably decide in 2019.

Mimas (Saturn)


493,647.75 km²

measure the surface. The Earth is calculated at 37.936.694,79 square kilometers.

Why is this moon fantastic? Mimas looks like the Death Star Star WarsThis should be sufficient as an excuse. Who does not want to be satisfied with that – good! For a long time, Mimas was the smallest and most inner moon of Saturn for astronomers and nothing but a single point: it was not until the 80s that the Voyager 1 and 2 probes (approx. Icarus: Buratti & Ververka, 1984 /Icarus: Dermott & Thomas, 1988). Later, the space probe approached Cassini several times. Among other things, has a detailed photo of 2005 showing the characteristic Herschel crater, which turns the moon into a science fiction double. However, if Mimas possesses the firepower to destroy an entire planet, it could be questioned.

Miranda (Uranus)


500 kilometer

it is the diameter of the moon. That is a seventh of the earth's moon.

Literature lovers will have their money on the planet Uranus. Some of its moons are named after the characters of the writer Alexander Pope, but especially after the figures of the playwright William Shakespeare – as well as Miranda, the daughter of the magician in The storm, Without wanting to make further references to it: the galactic Miranda is mainly known for its oblique appearance. NASA even confronts them with the Frankenstein monster – Shelley not Shakespeare – because the moon seems to consist of pieces that are not entirely compatible. The result is one of the most varied landscapes in the solar system. There are giant canyons, twelve times deeper than the Grand Canyon. Because of the low attraction, a stone that falls from the edge of the highest cliff will hit the ground only after ten minutes. The geological highlights are three structures called Iverness Corona, Elsinore Corona and Arden Corona, which differ greatly from the environment, because there are far fewer craters on them than in the surrounding area (Icarus: Hillier, Helfenstein & Veverka, 1989). In 30 years, no comparable object was found on celestial bodies. By the way, seven of the innumerable typical craters have made a name for themselves. They are called figures of the storm; so that everything has its order.

Tritone (Neptune)


354759 kilometer

is the long semi-long axis, the earth is 149.6 million kilometers.

The earth turns counterclockwise, the moon orbits in the same direction. Even Mars turns counterclockwise, Phobos surrounds it in the same direction. And Neptune too – but it's too common for his moon Triton! According to the motto that the gods are above things, the largest of the 13 moons of Neptune rotates in the opposite direction to the rotation direction of its planet, thus running on a retrograde orbit. Unique in this case, Triton makes the combination of rotation direction, size and the fact that it keeps relatively little distance from its planet. At first, it may seem conventional to always turn Neptune on the same side of the Earth's Earth Moon – but beware: in the case of Triton, an unusual and very inclined axis of rotation ensures that both poles are now facing the Sun. So far, NASA's Voyager 2 probe alone was close to it in 1989, not only by setting the temperature on the frozen surface to minus 235 degrees Celsius, but also by observing the geysers (Science: Smith et al., 1989 / Science: Stone & Miner, 1989 /Science: Cruikshank et al., 1993). This makes Triton one of the few geologically active celestial bodies in the solar system.

Nereid (Neptune)


.7507

it is the eccentricity of the orbit. It is the most eccentric of a planetary moon in the solar system. Earth's # 0.01671123.

The sea nymphs protect the shipwrecked and entertain the sailors with games. According to Greek mythology, they should be beautiful and particular. Then it was natural to name the Moon of Neptune after them: Nereid, which was discovered more than 100 years after Triton, but in no way inferior to its neighbor (Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific: Kuiper, 1949). On the contrary, it holds its own record, because it has the most eccentric orbit of a planetary moon in the solar system, which is known so far. On a highly elliptical path, Nereid surrounds Neptune every 360 terrestrial days. How much is compressed the circle on which Nereid crosses the space is the eccentricity. It's numbered between 0 and 1 – 0 would be a pure circle – and it's 0.75 for the galactic nymph. In comparison, the Earth's orbit is 0.0167. It follows that the outermost Neptune Moon approaches its planet with a bluish appearance at about 1,355,000 kilometers, to remove it up to 9,625,000 kilometers.

S / 2015 (136472) 1 (Makemake)


-239.15 Degrees Celsius

prevail on average on the surface. For the earth, 14 degrees are the average temperature.

Criticism for this election is already planned – after all, Pluto, which was sacked by the planetary course, has passed again and, with Makemake, it has just been chosen as the second brightest dwarf planet officially recognized in the Kuiper belt around the which a natural satellite rotates. But Makemake has just gotten this cute little moon S / 2015 (136472) 1, nicknamed MK2, which is surprisingly dark like coal and should have a diameter of about 170 kilometers (Letters of astrophysical journals: Parker et al., 2016). The lunar orbits of Makemake approximately at a distance of 21,000 kilometers, on a circular or elliptical orbit, are not yet clear. It should be quite cold with him, on average, there is probably less than 239.15 degrees Celsius on his frozen methane-covered surface. Compared to the Earth, where 14 degrees is currently the average temperature: beautiful, pretty, rather cold. It is not known how Makemake came to his moon. A collision is a possibility, but the dwarf planet could also capture the object and thus obtain a special delicacy from the depths of the Kuiper belt, which is dotted with more than 2,000 objects.

Allen, who has now filled the galactic desire to travel, is recommended at this point, nor a visit to the exoplanet travel agency of NASA. Further articles on the exploration of infinite widths can be found on our topic page. For the 50th anniversary of the moon landing, there is also a collection of selected text on the big step for humanity.

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