Parkinson's: stem cells grafted into a patient's brain


Japanese researchers injected the so-called "iPS" stem cells into the brain of a patient with Parkinson's disease. This clinical study aims to verify if these cells can regenerate dopamine neurons and alleviate symptoms.

The team of theUniversity of Kyoto injected 2.4 million of these pluripotent cells, able to give any kind of cell, in the left part of the brain function
Located in the cranial box, the brain is the seat of higher functions (cognitive functions, senses, nervous responses) and vegetative functions. It is therefore an essential organ that guarantees the regulation of all … "data-image =" / 5cb474dd85_121782_cerveau- 3d.jpg "data-url =" / health / definitions / biology-brain-3125 / "data-more =" More information ">brain, during a three-hour operation last month. The man, in his fifties, was well tolerated and will now be under surveillance for two years, the Kyoto University said in a statement.

If no problems emerge within the next six months, the researchers will implant another 2.4 million cells, this time on the right side of the patient's brain. These iPS cells from healthy donors are expected to develop into a neuronal structure
Each neuron is composed of:
of a cellular or pericaryon body with the nucleus, many ramifications of the dendritic type (from which … "data-image =" / midioriginal / 4 /8/4/4845b46c32_50034180_neurone-dr.jpg "data-url =" / health / definitions / neuron-biology-209 / "data-more =" More information ">neurons producers of dopamine, a neurotransmitter involved in motor control.

In July, Kyoto University announced that this clinical study was held with seven participants aged between 50 and 69. "I greet patients for their courageous and determined participation", commented Professor Jun Takahashi, quoted on Friday by the NHK public television channel.

Pluripotent cells to generate new neurons

the Parkinson's disease it is characterized by the degeneration of neurons to dopamine and results in examples of symptoms
Symptoms can affect different organs:

muscle pain, joint pain, headache, digestive problems, disorders of the … "data-image =" 8 / e882bacd5b_96032_symptome-woman-mal-head.jpg "data-url =" / health / definitions / medecine-symptom-834 / "data-more =" More information ">symptoms that progressively worsen like tremors, limb stiffness and decreased body movements. It affects more than ten million people worldwide, according to the Parkinson's disease foundation United States. Therapies currently available "Improve symptoms without slowing the progression of the disease"explains the foundation.

This test follows an experiment conducted on monkeys with stamina cells of human origin that have improved the ability to make movements in primate origin
The debate remains … "data-image =" nc-20.jpg "data-url =" / planet / definitions / zoology-primate-2141 / "data-more =" More information ">Records he suffers from Parkinson's disease, according to a study published in late August 2017 in the scientific journal nature. The survival of grafted cells, by injection into the primate brain, was observed for two years without any cell cluster appearance. A tumor can be benign or malignant. "Data-url =" / health / definitions / tumor-medicine-2540 / "data-more =" Read the definition ">cancer.

Initially these iPSCs were … "data-image =" -pluripotent-nature -methods-04.jpg "data-url =" / health / definition / medecine-cell-strain-pluripotent-induced-6207 / "data-more =" More information ">induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS for induced pluripotent stem cells) the adult cells are returned to the almost embryonic state making them express again. The nucleus of the cell is "…" data-url = "/ health / definitions / genetics-gene-151 /" data-more = "More information">genes (normally inactive in adult cells). This genetic manipulation gives them the ability to produce any kind of cell (pluripotency), according to the place of the body in which they are then transplanted. The use of iPS cells does not pose fundamental ethical problems, unlike the stem cells taken from embryonic development.
Coming from a single cell, the embryo develops through successive cell divisions (mitosis). Go through various … "data-image =" – caustic-wiki-cc-20.jpg "data-url =" / health / definitions / embryology-biology-2257 / "data-more =" More information ">embryos the human beings.

What to remember

  • Scientists from Kyoto University injected 2.4 million pluripotent cells into a patient's brain.
  • These healthy donor cells will need to regenerate dopamine neurons.
  • In total, the clinical trial should involve seven patients.

Parkinson's: stem cells slow down the disease in monkeys

Article from Tokyo – AFP published on February 25, 2012

The monkeys develop the equivalent of the Parkinson's disease they showed an improvement in their symptoms after injection into their human stem cell brain. The technique could be tested on man since 2015.

The monkeys suffering from Parkinson's disease have made significant progress after implanting human stem cells into their brains, the Japanese researchers said on Wednesday.

Four monkeys whose limbs moved spasmodically (a common symptom of syndrome of ParkinsonAnd those who struggled to control their bodies showed signs of improvement three months after the operation, said Jun Takahashi, a professor atUniversity of Kyoto, one of the authors of the study published in the Journal of Parkinson & # 39; s Disease.

Six months later transplantthe four tested primates were able to walk again in their cage, he added.

Jun Takahashi said that at the time of implementation, 35% of stamina cells they were dopaminergic neurons and about a tenth of them were still alive a year later. In order to improve the effectiveness of treatment, it would like to increase this survival rate to 70%. He hopes to be able to conduct this experiment on humans as early as 2015. " We must first increase the number of dopaminergic neurons a plant, in order to reduce the risk of cancer " postoperative, has explained.

Induced pluripotent stem cells in humans

In this monkey experiment, Jun Takahashi and his team used embryonic stem cellsbut in the case of medical experience, the researchers think they are using it induced pluripotent stem cells (IPSC), created by implanting four types of genes into human skin cells for reprogramming. These induced iPSCs therefore generated a return almost to the embryonic (undifferentiated) stage.

The use of embryonic stem cells, which is considered very promising by many scientists, is contrary. Religious groups consider the culture of these cells unethical, emphasizing this destruction of an embryo. In Japan, however, nothing forbids the use of these cells for scientific research.

the Parkinson's disease It is one of the main ones neurodegenerative diseasesAfter the onset, it occurs on average about 65 years and is currently about 350 000 … "data-url =" / health / definitions / medicine-Alzheimer's disease-3606 / "data-more =" Further information ">Alzheimer's disease. It is also one of the most common causes of motor disability, after the First of the accident: risk accumulation (probability of causes), … "data-image =" https: //fr.cdn.v5 .future- / buildsv6 / images / midioriginal / 4/0/9 / 409a56fb3d_125727_accident.jpg "data-url =" / health / definitions / various-accident-17265 / "data-more =" More information ">accidents cerebrovascular diseases.

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