The international team of Forward Search Experiment, led by physicists from the University of California, Irvine, made the first-ever detection of candidates for neutrin formed in The Large Hadron Collider (LHC). In a paper published in “Physical Review D.”, scientists described how they observed the six interactions of neutrinos during the activation of a compact accelerator FIBER w 2018 r.
– Before this project, no traces of neutrinos were ever observed in the particle accelerator. This significant breakthrough is a step towards developing a deeper understanding of these elusive particles and the role they play in the universe, said Prof. Jonathan Feng, co-host of the FASER Collaboration.
The FASER experiment provided two key pieces of information. First, it verified that the position before the ATLAS interaction point in the LHC is the correct place to go collision neutrino detection. Second, the collected data confirmed the effectiveness of using the emulsion detector to observe this type of neutrino interaction.
The original FASER instrument consisted of lead and tungsten platesarranged alternately with the layers of emulsion. During particle collisions at the LHC, some of the produced neutrinos break down against the dense metal nuclei, creating particles that pass through the emulsion layers and create visible traces after processing. These traces provide clues about the energy of the particles, their types – taon, muon, or electron – and whether they are neutrinos or antineutrinos.
Feng believes the emulsion works in a similar way to photography from before the digital camera era. When a 35mm film is exposed to light, the photons leave traces that are revealed as patterns when the film is developed. FASER scientists were able to see the interactions of neutrinos after removing and developing detector emulsion layers.
‘Having verified the effectiveness of the emulsion detector approach for observing the interactions of neutrinos produced in the particle collider, the FASER team is now preparing a new series of full instrument experiments that are much larger and much more sensitive,’ said Feng.
As of 2019, the Fenga team is preparing to conduct an experiment using FASER instruments for the purpose of explore dark matter at the LHC. They hope to detect dark photons, which would give scientists insight into how dark matter interacts with normal atoms and other matter in the universe through extragravitational forces.