The Importance of Giving Immunizations to Infants and Toddlers

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Natural Science and Technology. Illustration source: PEXELS/Anthony

Infants and toddlers are an age group that is a priority in health services. Why is this group a priority group? There are several reasons why babies and toddlers are prioritized for health services including: this age group is the next generation in the sustainability of a country, brain development reaches 100% at the age of 5 years, and is very vulnerable and easily infected with disease.

The brain is an important human organ for the survival of life. With a good and perfect brain condition, a person can think and do activities well. Therefore, at the age of infants and toddlers, it is necessary to pay close attention to their health, because if infants and toddlers often suffer from illness, it will affect their brain development.

Within the scope of health services, the preventive sector is a top priority. Immunization is a very effective form of health intervention in efforts to reduce infant and toddler mortality. The immunization program is regulated in the Regulation of the Minister of Health of the Republic of Indonesia number 12 of 2017 concerning immunization. What is meant by immunization is an effort to actively increase a person’s immunity against a disease so that if one day he is exposed to the disease he will not get sick or only experience a mild illness.

Based on the type of implementation, there are 2 types of immunization, namely program immunization and optional immunization. This paper focuses on immunization programs organized by the government. Program immunizations consist of routine immunizations, additional immunizations and special immunizations. Routine immunization is carried out continuously and continuously. Additional immunization is immunization given to certain age groups that are most at risk of disease according to epidemiological studies at a certain time period. And special immunization is carried out to protect a person and society against certain diseases in certain situations. As for the departure of prospective pilgrims and Umrah. Specific immunization against meningococcal meningitis, yellow fever, rabies and poliomyelitis.

Because the title is about immunization for infants and toddlers, the focus of this paper is on routine immunization which consists of basic immunization and advanced immunization. Basic immunization is given to babies before 1 year of age and advanced immunization is given to children under 2 years old (baduta), children of primary school age and women of childbearing age.

Infant immunization before 1 year to prevent hepatitis B, poliomyelitis, tuberculosis, diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, pneumonia, meningitis caused by haemophilus influenza type b (Hib) and measles. Advanced immunization for under-fives to prevent diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, pneumonia, meningitis caused by hemophilus influenza type b (Hib) and measles.

The time of immunization is 0 -24 hours of hepatitis B immunization, 1 month of BCG and Polio 1 immunization, 2 months of DPT 1 and Polio 2 immunization, 3 months of DPT 2 and Polio 3, 4 months of DPT 3, Polio 4 and IPV, 9 months old measles immunization. The distance between Polio and DPT 1 immunization to polio and DPT 2 and so on is 1 month.

After giving basic immunization under the age of 1 year, it is followed by giving booster immunization at the age of 18-24 months. This follow-up immunization consists of DPT and measles immunizations. In infants whose immunizations were late, the distance between DPT 3 immunization and repeat DPT immunization was 12 months. And for measles immunization, the distance between the first measles immunization and repeated measles immunization is 6 months.

Seeing the importance of immunization for infants and toddlers, it is hoped that mothers who have babies will immediately bring their babies to be immunized. Place of immunization at the health center and Yandu post. Usually the Yandu post is in the middle of a community settlement and its activities are once a month. Therefore, mothers who have babies and toddlers should not ignore the activities of the Yandu post around the house.

It should be noted that most diseases that can be prevented by immunization are diseases that attack the lungs. The lungs function to exchange air containing CO2 with air containing oxygen for human needs. So you can imagine that babies and toddlers suffer from an infected disease in the lungs which is very dangerous for their breathing. Therefore, do not ignore basic immunizations for infants and follow-up immunizations for under-fives. Immunization at Pos Yandu is free because it is a government program. Hopefully this article is useful.

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