Technology The oldest Homo sapiens traces in Europe

The oldest Homo sapiens traces in Europe

DNA tests and carbon-14 dating reveal that Homo sapiens arrived in Europe at least 5,000 years earlier than previously thought, around 45,000 years ago. Their remains were found in a cave in Bulgaria.

Almost a year ago, a study published in Nature announced that we had probably found what at the time was the oldest trace ofHomo sapiens outside Africa, in Greece to be precise, and that she was 210,000 years old. But this study has since been called into question. Today, the trace to which the same title is attributed was found in the famous Bacho Kiro cave in Bulgaria. This is what an international research team announces in two articles published again in Nature but also in Nature Ecology & Evolution.

The claim is supported by a carbon-14 dating that gives an age of about 45,000 years to the remains of five Fossils … “data-image =” /midioriginal/1/9/1/19101d2e63_46125_def-fossile-nardino-flickr.jpg “data-url =” “data-more =” Read more “>fossils humans found and who are accompanied by stone tools, thousands of bones of hunted animals, bone tools and also personal ornaments like pearls and pendants.

The team led by Jean-Jacques Hublin, director of the Max-Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, in collaboration with Tsenka Tsanova and Shannon McPherron of the Max-Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, and Nikolay Sirakov and Svoboda Sirakova of the National Institute of archeology with the museum at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences in Sofia, Bulgaria, therefore managed to identify the first Homo sapiens of the Upper Paleolithic in Europe.

For this, she benefited from the help of Hajdinjak and Matthias Meyer of the genetics team led by Svante Pääbo in the department of evolutionary genetics of the Max-Planck Institute of evolutionary anthropology. These researchers indeed sequenced the DNA of the fossil bones found and it is in fact the exceptionally good conservation of the DNA in a molar and fragments of hominines which showed that one was in the presence of remains of modern humans with mitochondrial DNA sequences characteristic of humans today.

Homo sapiens by Jean-Jacques Hublin (Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany). Homo sapiens is the only surviving species of a wide variety of homininous forms from the Middle Pleistocene (third stage of the Pleistocene). This species, with remarkable adaptive success, has an African origin and spread in Eurasia during the Upper Pleistocene (first epoch of the Quaternary period), first in tropical regions, then later in mid-latitudes. She supplanted other forms of hominines, the Neanderthals and the Denisovans by partially absorbing them. © National Academy of Medicine

Neanderthals influenced by the culture ofHomo sapiens ?

This discovery is interesting for more than one reason because in Europe at that time, still dominated by Neanderthals, we saw the appearance of technical innovations in tools and ornaments among Neanderthals, appearance giving rise to the name of Chatelperronian for that time. It derives from the name of the site of the Grotte des Fées in Châtelperron, in the Allier, in Auvergne. It was defined in 1906 by a famous prehistorian, Father Henri Breuil.

Until now, the Chatelperronian sites had only delivered Neanderthal fossil remains, but some researchers have been arguing for some time that the innovations that appeared at that time may have had their source in Homo sapiens. On the site of Bacho Kiro, we also note the presence of cave bear teeth which have been transformed into pendants, some of which are surprisingly similar to the ornaments made later by Neanderthals in Western Europe. They would therefore have adopted technologies and a culture initially brought by Homo sapiens, which is not so surprising when we remember that we have evidence of hybridization between these hominines.

This is something to bring a new piece to debates on this issue because it seems clear now that the first Homo sapiens arrived in Europe 5,000 years earlier than was generally accepted so far. Especially since we know that about 8,000 years later, it’s Homo sapiens which takes the ascendancy on the continent with the final extinction of the Neanderthals.

What you must remember

  • DNA tests and carbon-14 dating reveal that Homo sapiens arrived in Europe at least 5,000 years earlier than previously thought, around 45,000 years ago.
  • Their remains were found in a cave in Bulgaria at the Bacho Kiro site.
  • The bones found are directly associated with the so-called Châtelperronian culture generally attributed to Neanderthals but which it was suspected that it actually came from modern man. The Neanderthals may have only copied it.

Europe’s oldest Homo sapiens is believed to have arrived in Greece 210,000 years ago

AFP-Relaxnews article published on 07/14/2019

According to a study published in Nature, the oldest Homo sapiens “Non African” would be Greek and 210,000 years old. The last works thus advance by more than 150,000 years the arrival of our The species is the fundamental entity of classifications, which brings together living beings with a set of morphological, anatomical, … “data-url =” https : // “data-more =” Read more “>species in Europe.

Earlier, further “: The oldest Homo sapiens “Non African” Unearthed would be Greek and 210,000 years old according to work published Wednesday which advance more than 150,000 years the arrival of our species in Europe. Apidima 1, as scientists have called it, is ” older than all other specimens ofHomo sapiens found outside Africa “Katerina Harvati of the University of Tübingen in Germany, co-author of the study published in the journal, told AFP Nature.

A jaw fragment from a Homo sapiens found in a cave in israel dates back to 177,000 to 194,000 years. The other “older” modern humans found outside of Africa are said to be around 90,000 to 120,000 years old. In Europe, 70,000 years.

It is a late recognition for Apidima 1, found at the end of the 1970s. Discovered by the Anthropology Museum of the University of Athens in a cavity in the Apidima massif in the Peloponnese, it had been, at the time, cataloged as pre-Neanderthal. But modern dating and imaging techniques have allowed Katerina Harvati and her team to highlight ” a mixture of modern and archaic human characteristics “Who make it” un Three hundred thousand years ago, the first direct representative of our species appeared on earth: homo sapiens. It will gradually replace all the other hominids. It will explore the earth, reach all the territories of our … “data-url =” “data-more =” Read the continuation “>Homo sapiens precocious

The dispersion of modern humans outside Africa has spread to Europe

Small flat, the archaeologists found only the back part of its Location of the skull
The skull is the head bone, the main function of which is to protect the brain. The only other head bone is the hyoid bone.
The skull communicates with the vertebrae at the level of the hole … “data-image =” “data -url = “” data-more = “Read more”>skull, and ” some might argue that the specimen is too incomplete for its status toHomo sapiens be unequivocal “, Explains Éric Delson from Lehman College from New York in a commentary published with the study. ” Apidima 1 proves that the dispersion ofHomo sapiens outside Africa not only took place earlier than previously thought, over 200,000 years ago, but also extended to Europe Says Katerina Harvati.

TheHomo sapiens, also called theModern man, appeared in Africa. The oldest known representatives of our species are 300,000 years old and were found in Morocco, on the Jbel Irhoud website. It has long been believed that they did not leave their “cradle” until much later, about 70,000 years, in a Wave and swell
Note that, offshore, we will talk more readily of … “data-image =” “data- url = “” data-more = “Read more”>wave major.

Homo sapiens present in Europe before Neanderthals?

But for a few years, the discoveries do not cease questioning this theory, always advancing the date of their first migrations and extending the area of ​​their dispersion. Apidima 1 had been discovered in front of another skull, called Apidima 2. According to the study – and the presence on the occipital bone of a horizontal bead – it would be a Neanderthal 170,000 years old.

Our results suggest that at least two groups of people lived in Pleistocene middle in what is today southern Greece: an early population ofHomo sapiens and later a group of Neanderthals “, Suggests the specialist suggesting that the second had replaced the first, before being in turn replaced by others Homo sapiens, newly arrived, around 40,000 years ago when the Neanderthals have definitely disappeared. ” Perhaps once or several times, the two species replaced each other Explains Éric Delson.

This new discovery reinforces the idea that multiple dispersions of human beings outside Africa have occurred. The movement migration and the colonization of Eurasia is surely much more complex than previously thought. ” Rather than a single exit of African hominins to populate Europe and Asia, there must have been several dispersions, some not giving rise to permanent installations “, Judge Éric Delson. Even if all the groups that developed outside Africa more than 60,000 years ago have completely disappeared, leaving no trace in our genome current.

The oldest fossil ofHomo sapiens discovered outside Africa

Futura article with AFP, published on 01/29/2018

The discovery of a fossil jaw fragment in Israel postpones the date on which modern men would have left Africa by at least 50,000 years. This work also informs us about the crosses between Homo sapiens and other human species in the Near East.

The discovery of the fossil of a jaw fragment in a cave in Israel postpones at least 50,000 years the exit of Africa from modern humans, also shedding new light on crosses with other species such as Neanderthals. Before this discovery on the archaeological site of Misliya, located on the slopes of Mount Carmel, the oldest fossils ofHomo sapiens found outside Africa were 90,000 to 120,000 years old, say researchers whose work was published Thursday in Science. However, the left part of this bone The Man … “data-image =” “data- url = “” data-more = “Read more”>maxillary superior, still bearing several teeth, dates back to a period ranging from 177,000 to 194,000 years.

“Misliya’s discovery is exciting”, judge Rolf Quam, professor of anthropology at the American University of Binghamton, one of the study’s co-authors. “This fossil is the most indication Amorphous crystals and solids
At scale … “data-image =” “data-url =” https: // “data-more =” Read more “>solid to this day that our ancestors emigrated from Africa much earlier than we previously thought “
, he emphasizes. It also means that “Modern men had potentially met other groups of archaic humans during this longer period of presence in Eurasia, offering more opportunities for cultural exchange and biological crossbreeding”, explains Professor Quam.

This fossil is the strongest indication to date that our ancestors emigrated from Africa much earlier than we thought.

Scientists used several dating techniques on Misliya’s jaw piece and teeth. They also analyzed its shape using 3D virtual models. Comparisons with fossils ofhominids Africans, Europeans and Asians as well as with recent human populations have shown that the Misliya fossil comes, unequivocally, from a modern Man.

“All the anatomical details of the Misliya fossil correspond well to the morphology modern humans but certain traits are also found in humans from Neanderthal and other archaic human groups “, points out Professor Quam. “One of the difficulties for this research was to identify the anatomical characteristics only found in modern humans which leave no doubt as to the species to which belonged the maxilla and fossilized teeth of Misliya”, explains the scientist.

Fossils that tell us about our prehistoric origins

The vault of the cave of Misliya collapsed about 160,000 years ago, making it possible to protect until today this fossil and other materials and objects buried in the It therefore consists of particles which were carried away by the agents erosion, and which are deposited in successive strata … “data-image =” flickr.jpg “data-url =” “data-more =” Read more “>sediment. Archaeological evidence reveals that its occupants were hunters capable of killing big game such as aurochs, fallow deer Persians and gazelles and that they controlled the use of the Oxidation Reaction
Oxidation reactions can be slow, as in the case of training … “data-image =” -combustion.jpg “data-url =” “data-more =” Read more “>fire in In an ellipse, particular point of the semi-major axis: the sum (resp. the difference) of the distances from any point of an ellipse (resp. of a hyperbola) to the foci is … “data-url = “” data-more = “Read more”>homes. They also made stone tools similar to those found in the oldest modern humans in Africa.

Other older fossils of modern humans have been found in Africa, but periods and routes of migration out of the African continent have Homo sapiens are essential for understanding the evolution of our species, explain these researchers.

Very important corridor for migrations from – the “old” Australopithecus (more than 3 million years old) like Lucy … “data-url =” -hominide-2145 / “data-more =” Read more “>hominids, the Middle East was occupied at different times by modern humans and Neanderthals. This latest discovery opens the possibility of crosses between these species, and of mixtures genetic between different local populations much earlier than previously thought, scientists point out.

In reality, the clues found in Misliya corroborate hypotheses based on genetic data according to which modern men emigrated from Africa more than 220,000 years ago. Several archaeological and fossil discoveries made recently in Asia also postpone the date of the first appearance of modern humans in this part of the world, and therefore their exit from Africa. “This discovery contributes to a better understanding of our origins”, concludes Laura Martin-Frances, a researcher from the University of Bordeaux who participated in this work.

This will also interest you

Interview 5/5: where did Homo sapiens arrive in Europe? The period when Homo sapiens appeared in Europe remains an unresolved question today. Some experts speculate that it would have come from the east, others see it passing through the Strait of Gibraltar. Silvana Condemi, paleoanthropologist, explains in this interview the challenges of the colonization of the European continent by Homo sapiens.

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