The performance of physical activity and exercise is essential for the maintenance and improvement of the physical, psychological and social condition of people in all their stages of life, and particularly in older adults. In this way, a better and greater performance in the activities of daily life is sought, as well as the degree of independence and functionality for said tasks. Life is movement and through it, it is where we can be free and develop to our full potential, making life a place of encounters, challenges and emotions.
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From the UADE Sports Department, they suggest and emphasize the importance of performing physical activity in populations of older adults as a healthy and preventive lifestyle.
Given the health moment that the world is going through, the performance of physical activity and exercise will be decisive for the maintenance and / or improvement of physical condition, as well as collaboration in the control and management of altered emotional states, the improvement of immune system, sleep reconciliation, among other psycho-physiological variables.
For this reason, teachers Fernando Palladino and Gabriel Katz devised a routine suitable for those over 60 years of age.
– Adherence: One of the most important principles to ensure the continuity and duration of training through the years. It must generate satisfaction and motivation to install the healthy habit.
– Individualization: take into account the general characteristics of this population, the tastes, preferences and possibilities of the person who trains.
– Purpose: to establish specific and particular objectives (previously) in relation to the person who trains, thus being able to select the best means (exercises and activities) and that are closely related to the proposed objectives.
– Well-being: training through exercises must pursue progressive and gradual improvements over time, seeking to improve and maintain health, performance, avoiding physical, psychological, injury, etc., as much as possible.
– Weekly frequency and duration: It is recommended in this population between 2 to 4 workouts or weekly stimuli (with 48 hours of recovery, that is, every other day) with a duration ranging from 20 ‘to 45’, depending on the type of exercise or activity to perform.
-Intensity: Degree of effort that such training should provoke. It should be low to medium intensity, seeking quality and efficiency rather than quantity.
-Volume: Number of times an effort is made within training or physical exercise. It must be low or medium, with breaks that allow the correct execution of the exercise or activity to be carried out.
-Complexity: Search for exercises or activities that are within the reach of the person who trains, according to the objectives set out above and that pursue the principle of going from the simple to the complex, from the easy to the difficult and from what is known to The unknown. You can’t train what I don’t know or can’t do.
SELECTION OF EXERCISES
Exercises with your own body weight or with external resistances (chord weight, bars or poles, liquid-filled bottles, elastics, etc.) that try to work the whole body in harmony (mainly lower body and central body area) and that will have a greater or lesser incidence in the cardio-respiratory capacity. And that they also positively influence the person’s daily and work activities.
Organization: In the form of a circuit and / or stations where 2 to 5 different exercises (upper, lower and central train) can be grouped, in a circular and alternate way to work the whole body. With breaks between exercises and between laps, to allow recovery and the quality of movements. Making 1 to 3 laps on the circuit. Working for work time and pause (example: 10 seconds of work and 20 seconds of rest).
Work stimuli of no more than 25/30 seconds, with equal or greater pauses, are suggested to promote the quality of the exercises. Working by repetitions (within the same exercise) in a number from 6 to 15, according to the degree of effort and difficulty of said exercise. Always end with a return to calm and elongation.
RESISTANCE OR CARDIOVASCULAR WORK
Organization: Through force circuits to work together resistance and muscular strength. (adapting the stimulus / pause times to have a greater or less cardio-respiratory compromise) Walks with different durations or intensities (within the available domestic environment).
Stationary bike (if you have it at home), with less hip, knee and ankle joint commitment. Through daily physical activity and / or work, doing housework, going up and down stairs, moving regularly and not sitting for long periods of time.
Example of a circuit training session: (we will seek to train the whole body alternately lower / upper / middle zone)
A) chair squat: Taking a chair as a reference, one meter from it, I must stand up and sit down in a controlled manner.
* The movement must start from the lower limb through the knees and hips (flexing and extending them)
* Speed must be controlled
* The trunk must be aligned (trunk / neck) The arms accompany the movement (to the side or in front of the body) to improve stability
* Feet should be slightly wider than hip width with well supported soles.
Variation of progression: As soon as I make contact with the chair, I change the rhythm (speed) to stop. I feel slow and stop faster. I pull out the chair for reference and work without support
Simpler variant: With the chair as a reference, I hold my hands on a fixed point (example railing or support) to help me sit.
B) Push with your arms: on the ground resting his knees on it, he pushed the ground flexing and extending his elbows.
Technical considerations: The hands are supported below the line of the shoulders The separation of the hands should be a little greater than the width of the shoulders. The trunk should be in line, with the neck and eyes on the floor. When I flex my arms (take body weight) I try to touch the floor with my chest.
Variation of progression: I move the knee support away from the center of the body. Without knee support.
Simpler variants: (unload weight from the arms) In support of knees push a surface higher than the ground (example chair). From a standing position, I push the wall by flexing and extending my elbows (more or less inclined).
C) hip hinge: From a standing position I flex and extend my hip (in a forward and backward motion), pulling out and tucking in.
* Feet hip width apart
* Erect trunk always aligned with the neck
* When hip flexion occurs (tail back), the trunk is held as upright as possible (without flexing the back) and the knee is slightly flexed (slight)
* When hip extension occurs (tail forward) extend the knees and the force comes from the hip and does not give the lower back (lower back)
Variants of progression: When the hip is flexed, the arms are raised (at the level of the shoulders). A greater amplitude is sought (hip flexion) making a more pronounced movement
Simpler variants: Standing with a reference (wall) to touch when flexing your hip (tail back). With two references on the back wall (previous idem) and with a wooden cane as a support on the ground (supported by one end and taken by the other).
D) Abdominal iron: Standing against the wall, facing it, I support my forearms and maintain the posture for a certain time.
* Distance from the wall to support the forearms
* Body aligned (feet, legs, trunk and neck) with a forward gaze
* While I am leaning against the wall, I do push, maintaining the posture and pressing tail and belly.
* Wide hip feet, to have a good base of support on the ground.
Variants of progression: Ditto in hand supports. In support of hands and I am left with only one leg resting on the ground. Ditto above, support one hand, with both feet on the floor Increasing the inclination of the body, forearms resting on a lower surface (example a table). Ditto above, in support of hands with extended elbows.
E) trunk joint mobility: standing with a cane (broom type) we perform trunk rotations and lateral inclinations
* Feet a little wider than hip width, for a good support base.
* We support the cane on the shoulders, behind the head, and hold it by the extremities with our hands.
* Rotations should start from the center of the body, with the gaze forward and the body aligned.
* Side bends should start from the center of the body, with the feet and hips fixed in place.
Variants of progression: Increase range of motion (amplitude). Increase execution speed. Reduce the base of support by bringing the feet closer (shorter distance between them).
F) joint mobility of the shoulder girdle: (shoulders, arms, trunk) In a standing or sitting position, with the help of a cane, we carry out movements involving the entire shoulder joint complex (flexions, extensions, rotations, etc.)
* Standing or sitting, taking the cane with your hands at the extremities (wide grip base)
* Perform movements in front of the body, bringing the cane from top to bottom with extended elbows.
* From behind the head, make movements from the shoulders to bring the cane over it, extending the elbows
* Same as before, but with the cane supported in front of the body (clavicle) and bring it up to the top of the head, extending the elbows
Variants of progression: From sitting position to standing. Expand or reduce the base of support (foot separation). Increase execution speed. Increase range of motion (within joint limitations and possibilities). Permanently or temporarily remove the number of supports on the ground (1 foot).
G) transportation: We carry out walking movements with external loads to the body (bags, bottles, drums, backpacks, bags, etc.) holding them with the hands, incorporating the central stability of the body.
* Body aligned with gaze to the front, I take the load to carry subject in the hands. (It must be according to the person’s abilities)
* Make movements with the same walking, with the arms to the side of the body without swaying, with erect chest and shoulders back (without shrinking them)
* Control the central area of the body (hip, abdominal and spinal area, shoulder girdle and neck) by starting the force from it, generating a block with the body.
* Important not to drag the feet when walking, performing alternate steps.
* Hips and shoulders must always be aligned (at all times when walking)
Vprogression / regression ariants: Increase or decrease the cadence of steps (pace and number of steps). Increase or decrease the contact time of the feet on the ground and the time of the foot in the air when walking. Increase or decrease the distance to travel in transport. Increase or decrease the weight of the load (it will generate more or less destabilization). Increase or decrease the elevation of the knees when walking (generating greater contact time and stability to one leg) without losing the technical-postural quality of the exercise.