It should bring some humanity to the challenge of global migration, a UN pact on migration is becoming a national political issue in many European countries.
The document must be ratified at a conference to be held at the beginning of the week in Marrakech.
A UN conference will be held at the start of next week in Marrakech, Morocco. It had to take place in relative indifference, in a hidden consensus. How often world leaders, like Emmanuel Macron or Angela Merkel, had announced their coming.
For more than a week, however, this conference focused on migration has caused storms. He is reported in France by politicians. It causes a parliamentary crisis in Belgium. It shatters a previously common European position. "This exploitation of the migrant subject, in the name of inequality or the fight against poverty, is unworthy", Solène Bedaux, of the Secours catholique-Caritas France, arose from Marrakesh, referring in particular to the attacks of yellow jackets.
A "Global Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration"
Solène Bedaux has followed since its inception the elaboration of the document to be signed on Tuesday 11 December. It is a "global compact for safe, tidy and regular migration". " He was the former UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon who launched this initiative shortly before his departure in 2016. The world was reacting to the photo of Alan Kurdi, a Syrian boy found dead on a Turkish beach ", remember.
Representatives from the countries of immigration and emigration worked to find ways to avoid deaths. They wanted to commit themselves to treating migrants well, to avoid their exploitation by smugglers. "This pact reaffirms the fundamental rights of migrants in health, education, for example"explains Solène Bedaux.
The Pope asks refugees
Summarized in one sentence, the ambition established by the pact is "Improving cooperation on international migration". This text is not binding on signatory states. It therefore does not intend to question national migration policies, whatever they may be.
From February to July 2018, the Pact was negotiated in Geneva in relative indifference. In July, 191 countries validated it without reserve in New York, with the notable exception of Donald Trump's United States, withdrawn a year ago from the drafting of the document.
The Pact identifies the principles – such as the defense of human rights, children and the recognition of national sovereignty – and lists 23 proposals to help countries cope with migration, facilitating information, migrant integration, exchange of experiences. Prohibits arbitrary detentions, allowing arrests only as a last resort. "With the progress of the negotiations, the terms of the Pact have been reduced: the principle of non-rejection of migrants by the host countries has disappeared, and the concept of hermetic partition (firewall) between migration services and information held by social services dealing with migrants ", says Solène Bedaux.
"A red rag brandished by the nationalist parties in Europe"
And then, for two weeks, the Pact has become "A red rag brandished by the nationalist parties in Europe"says François Gemenne, migration specialist at the Université libre de Bruxelles. He says he is overwhelmed "With false information and lies" published on social networks on the text.
In Belgium, Prime Minister Charles Michel was forced to ask his Parliament to support the pact. In Slovakia, Foreign Minister Miroslav Lajcak slammed the door of the government against his country's decision to reject the text. Italy froze its signature, relying on a subsequent vote in parliament. In France, Marine Le Pen invited Emmanuel Macron not to sign the pact, a "Act of treason"…
Marine Le Pen does not want France to sign the Marrakesh Pact on migration
More "post" Facebook and Twitter, sometimes shared tens of thousands of times, argue that a "pact of migration" will force France to abandon its migratory sovereignty at the United Nations. Bulgaria, Hungary, Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Australia, Israel, Italy and Switzerland have decided not to come to Marrakech.
Solène Bedaux tries to calm the spirits: "No, there is no invention of new rights for migrants in this text". It is not certain that Emmanuel Macron and Angela Merkel will come to Marrakech.
Father Antoine Paumard sj
Director of JRS (Jesuit Refugee Service) France
"A common response to a global challenge"
"This pact is the result of an encouraging approach: having built a common declarative is already a sacred problem, something extraordinary! Countries other than migration have worked together for months to solve the problem.Migration is a challenge of globalization that can not to be solved by a solitary state, or by building walls This pact provides greater security in migratory routes and describes the prospect of a humanitarian visa issued in the country of departure for access to a host country. "Welcoming, protecting, promoting and integrating" the goal set by Pope Francis. "