The long-term delayed action insulin covers the basic needs of the body regardless of the carbohydrates consumed. This is essential for maintaining protein and fat metabolism; therefore it is also called basal insulin. The need is relatively fixed: the delay of insulin is dosed correctly when the glycemic value remains stable without carbohydrate intake. Thus the appropriate amount is determined during the hospital stay.
The dose of retardant insulin has not changed or varies only slightly. If necessary, it is increased, for example, in febrile infections or humiliated, for example, during prolonged exertion such as skiing holidays.
In addition, normal or similar fast-acting insulin boluses are administered – each adjusted to the current blood sugar level and to the units of carbohydrates or bread to be absorbed (KE or BE). In this case, the E: KE ratio is the insulin units that must be provided in order to reduce the blood sugar level at the starting interval after 1 KE. An example: an E: KE ratio of 2: 1 means that 2 I.E. Normal insulin needed for 1 KE.