Besides being able to live in the soil, plants can grow in other media, one of which is water. Plants that can grow in water are called aquatic plants. Lismining and Indriatmoko in their journal in 2018 said that aquatic plants are a very important part of the aquatic ecosystem. This is because this plant has a role as a phytoremediation agent and traps organic matter in waters that cleans and controls water pollution air.
Function of Water Plants
Similar to plants in general, plants in water also have various functions, especially for aquatic ecosystems. Quoting from Journal of Environmental Technology Vol. 19, No. 2 of 2018, this aquatic plant has various uses such as;
- As a microhabitat for fish such as shelter, foraging for food, spawning, and raising children.
- To improve water quality.
- Phytoremediation agents, heavy metal accumulators, and bio filters.
- Organic traps for eutrophic waters.
- As an absorber of certain substances or nutrients.
Although its functions are quite diverse, if there are too many aquatic plants in a water area, it can cause its function to decrease until it disappears. Water plants that are too numerous and become a nuisance cannot be called aquatic plants anymore, but aquatic weeds.
Types of Water Plants
Aquatic plants have many types, launching from sciencing.com aquatic plants are divided into three types, namely;
1. Plants that float
This type of aquatic plant only its roots are in the water. While the canopy is on the surface of the water. This plant still needs sunlight for photosynthesis like plants in general, so the stems and leaves must be above the water surface.
2. Plants that sink or grow in water
Unlike the previous types, this category of aquatic plants is that all parts of the plant are in the water. Common types of plants are aquarium ornamental plants that are used to beautify the appearance of the aquarium.
3. Plants whose roots are in the water, but part of the head is on the surface
The last type is a plant whose roots are in the water but the crown is on the surface. This plant usually lives in swamps or muddy soil. Plants of this type are usually used in gardens that are beautified with ponds.
Water Ornamental Plants in the Pond
We certainly often find gardens that have fish ponds. In the pond usually grows several aquatic plants. But who would have thought that the plants that grow in the pond should not be careless. Here are some plants that can be grown in pond water.
1. Water hyacinth
This type of plant is commonly found in shallow watery places, swamps, wetlands, lakes, water reservoirs, and various water sources that have calm currents or relatively still water. Water hyacinth have broad floating leaves. This plant can adapt well to a variety of water conditions, including waters that contain toxins or chemicals though.
2. Bamboo water
Bamboo does not only grow on the ground, but also grows in the water. The shape of this water bamboo has a height of about 3 meters with a small stem and has a brown circle. This pattern is what makes the water bamboo plant more beautiful.
3. Lotus flowers
The next water plant that is suitable for decoration in the pond is the lotus flower. This flower has large leaves about 20 to 40 cm. The lotus is a type of plant that floats. The flowers are bright yellow so that it will further beautify the view of the pond.
4. Ganggang rantai
Chain algae is an aquatic plant with the shape of a bush. This plant has the ability to clean water while increasing oxygen levels in the water. So the pool will remain clear. In addition, this plant can also be a home for young fish.
Aquarium Ornamental Plants
In addition to pond decoration, plants that live in water are also commonly found in aquariums. Plants in the aquarium serve to enhance the beauty while keeping the water clean and the fish in that place can live comfortably like when in the sea. There are several decorative plants which can live in water. Here is the list:
1. Lili air
These aquatic ornamental plants are usually planted in pond mud. Later the leaves and flowers of this plant will appear to the surface of the water. Flower colors vary from white, yellow, purple, to pink. While the leaves are round and have a waxy coating on the surface.
2. Jungle vallisneria
Jungle vallisneria has long, bright green leaves. The leaves of this plant are like ribbons. The long and bright leaves are suitable for planting at the back of the aquarium.
3. Tongue fern
This plant has long, tongue-like leaves with clear veins. This plant is usually grown by tying the rhizome to a rock or support and then placing it in water. This plant is about 20 to 30 cm tall and will grow well in water temperatures of around 20 to 32 degrees Celsius.
4. Water wisteria
Water wisteria ornamental plants have wavy leaves and narrow bumps with bright colors. The shape of these leaves can change according to environmental conditions. This water park can grow up to 50 cm with a width of about 25 cm.
Water Ornamental Plants in Pots
Aquatic plants can also be planted in pots or relatively narrow places. Here are some aquatic plants that can live in pots:
1. Betel ivory
Although the name is betel, but this plant is not the same as the betel that we usually find as medicine. betel ivory has small leaves that are round in shape with a tapered tip. The leaves of this plant are green with a yellow or yellowish tinge that makes their appearance even more beautiful. This plant can also be planted in the yard and will usually propagate to other trees. But when planted in a pot filled with water, this plant will hang down very beautifully.
This plant will usually float on the surface of the water with a circular green color and piled up. The leaves are covered with hairs so that the texture of these leaves is like velvet. The roots are fibrous with white color and hang up to 30 cm under water. Planting this plant is quite easy, because this plant does not need special care, just place it on the surface of the water and it will grow and give birth on its own.
3. Kala air
This plant has a shape like a funnel with a white color. While the pistil is bright yellow. This flower has soft water.
Another water plant that can be planted in the next pot is anubias. This aquatic plant has a beautiful shape. Not only that, anubias can also live without CO2 and a little fertilizer.
Aquatic Plants for Betta Fish
The popularity of betta fish is increasing day by day. These small fish with striking colors usually live in aquariums or other glass containers. What if you keep a betta, it never hurts to add water plants so that the aquarium looks beautiful and the fish can also have a comfortable place to live. There are several plants that are suitable as a betta fish habitat. Want to know what these types of plants are? Here’s the list:
1. Java Fern
Javanese fern is a fern that usually lives outside or in water. This plant can be an option for betta fish cultivation. This plant has a fairly large crown. So before planting it, make sure the aquarium space is enough to accommodate these plants. You can also regularly tidy up this plant so that it is not too big and clumpy.
2. Java moss
Other aquatic plants that can be used for aquariums Siamese fighting fish namely java moss. This plant is usually attached to rocks, driftwood, or other decorations in the aquarium. Java moss requires a water temperature of around 21 to 23 degrees Celsius to grow well.
3. Horn moss
Hornwort or hornwort is a plant that is suitable for betta fish aquariums. Only this water plant needs more extra care than other plants. This moss needs high enough light to grow properly. So make sure to place the aquarium containing the hornworts in a place that is exposed to the sun all the time.
This plant is actually an aquatic weed. It’s just that if cared for properly, this plant can be a decoration in your favorite betta fish aquarium. Anacharis need a neutral pH to grow properly, so checking pH regularly is one of the treatments that must be done. The ideal temperature for this plant is around 21 to 25 degrees Celsius. This plant has a fairly strong resistance, so it is also quite easy to care for.
5. Umbi betta
This plant does not need special care either for pH or water temperature. The need for light can also adjust to the size aquarium. If the aquarium is large, then the light will enter more and more and the growth of these bulbs will be faster.
Those are some types of aquatic plants that can be kept either in ponds, pots, or aquariums. Water plant care is actually not too difficult. But you also have to pay attention to the cleanliness of the place. If possible you can measure the pH and temperature of the water so that plants can grow better.
Before planting you can also look for information in advance regarding the size of the plant. Do not plant aquatic plants with a wide canopy in a narrow area. Because it can inhibit the growth of ornamental plants.