Pulmonary embolism typically occurs after a deep vein thrombosis (DVT). DVT is characterized by blood clots in the deep veins of the legs. These clots can become trapped in an area of the pulmonary arteries, which blocks blood flow to the lungs.
WHAT IS LUNG EMBOLISM?
A pulmonary embolism is a condition that occurs when blood flow is blocked by a clot, fat, air bubble, or other material in the pulmonary arteries. This blockage can lead to impaired oxygen exchange between the lungs and serious breathing problems.
The most common cause of pulmonary embolism is that clots formed in the deep veins of the body (especially in the legs) break off and are carried to the lungs by the bloodstream. This is called “deep vein thrombosis” (DVT). Other causes include fat embolism (post-traumatic), air bubble embolism (after a wound, surgery, or procedure involving an enlarged vessel), amniotic fluid embolism (in pregnant women), and certain medications.
Symptoms of a pulmonary embolism can include shortness of breath, chest pain, cough, bloody sputum, rapid heartbeat, sweating, and weakness. Treatment may vary depending on the size and spread of the clots, the age and health of the patient, underlying diseases, if any, and other factors. Anticoagulant drugs, thrombolytic drugs, aspirin and surgical intervention are among the treatment options.
HOW DOES A LUNG EMBOLIA OCCUR?
A pulmonary embolism occurs when the blood flow in the pulmonary arteries is blocked by a clot, fat, air bubble, or other material. The most common reason is that the clots formed in the deep veins of the body (especially in the legs) break off and are carried to the lungs by the bloodstream. These clots are called “deep vein thrombosis” (DVT). DVT can occur when the blood in the blood vessels in the legs slows down or tends to clot. In people with DVT, some of the clots can break off and travel through the bloodstream to the lungs, where they can cause a blockage in the pulmonary arteries.
Other causes of pulmonary embolism include fat embolism (post-traumatic), air bubble embolism (after a wound, surgery, or procedure involving an enlarged vessel), amniotic fluid embolism (in pregnant women), and certain medications.
Pulmonary embolism can lead to impaired oxygen exchange between the lungs and serious breathing problems due to the blockage of blood flow. Therefore, early diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary embolism is important. Risk factors include prolonged inactivity, leg fractures, surgery, cancer, smoking, heart disease, and birth control pills.
WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS OF LUNG EMBOLIA?
Pulmonary embolism is a condition that results from the blockage of part of the pulmonary arteries. Symptoms can vary depending on the size, location, and severity of the clot. Some people may experience mild symptoms, while others may develop severe and life-threatening symptoms.
The most common symptoms of pulmonary embolism are:
Shortness of breath: It is the most common symptom. The person may have to breathe harder than usual or may have difficulty breathing.
chest pain: Severe pain or pressure may be felt in the chest area. This pain can also be felt in the back or arm.
Cough: Cough may be accompanied by sputum or bloody.
fast heartbeat: The heartbeat may be faster than normal.
Sweating: Intense sweating may occur, especially during the night.
Dizziness or feeling faint: Distraction or drowsiness may be felt.
Pain, swelling or tenderness in the legs: These are signs of deep vein thrombosis (DVT), the most common cause of pulmonary embolism.
Since the symptoms of pulmonary embolism can be similar to other diseases, it is necessary to be examined by a doctor to confirm the diagnosis. Early diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary embolism can be lifesaving.
WHAT IS LUNG EMBOLISM TREATMENT?
Treatment of pulmonary embolism may vary depending on the size and location of the clot, the age and health of the patient. But the goal is to resolve the blockage, restore blood flow in the pulmonary arteries, and improve respiratory function.
Treatment options may include:
Anticoagulant drugs: Anticoagulant drugs prevent the formation of clots by reducing the tendency of the blood to clot and prevent the growth of existing clots. These drugs are usually given in low doses and are closely monitored for the risk of bleeding.
Thrombolytic drugs: Thrombolytic drugs contain enzymes that dissolve clots. These drugs are usually used in more serious situations and carry a risk of side effects that can cause bleeding.
Filter insertion: Filters are placed in the body to prevent large clots from entering the lung arteries. This option may be considered in people who are at high risk of bleeding or who cannot use anticoagulant medications.
Surgery: Surgery can be used to remove large clots or open the pulmonary arteries. However, these options are usually used in more serious situations and are not preferred in people at high risk of bleeding.
During the treatment process, the patient’s breathing and blood pressure are monitored and their symptoms are kept under control. There may also be different treatment options, such as hospitalization or home monitoring, depending on the patient’s state of health and the size of the clot. Preventive measures include lifestyle changes such as exercising regularly, not smoking, maintaining an ideal weight, and avoiding prolonged sitting or lying down.